Saturday, May 18, 2013

Formações colunares de basalto

O basalto é uma rocha de origem vulcânica muito dura, de cor negra, cinzenta ou verde escura, que resulta da solidificação rápida de lava em contacto com a atmosfera, por ocasião de erupções vulcânicas. 
 Como solidificou rapidamente, o material que compõe esta rocha não teve tempo para cristalizar a um ponto tal que os seus cristais possam ser vistos a olho nu. O basalto apresenta, portanto, uma textura lisa ou granulada muito fina. 
 Durante o processo de arrefecimento, o basalto contrai-se. Da contração podem resultar fraturas, as quais podem ser de tal maneira que a rocha acaba por se apresentar sob a forma de colunas prismáticas de base frequentemente hexagonal. 
 Foi o que aconteceu, nomeadamente, na chamada Calçada dos Gigantes, na Irlanda do Norte, que está classificada como Património Natural da Humanidade.
1. Litlanesfoss - Islândia
 2.Caverna do mar - Ilha Akun - Alasca - EUA
3. Ghenh Da Dia - Vietnã
4. Desfiladeiro Takachiho - Japão
 5. Los Organos - Ilhas Canárias - Espanha
6. Jusangjeolli Cliffs - Coréia do Sul
 7. Desfiladeiro Garni - Armênia
 8. Gruta de Fingal - Reino Unido
 9.  Calçada dos Gigantes, Irlanda
10.  Prismas Basálticos - Mexico
11. Kirkjugólf - Islândia
12. Svartifoss - Islândia
  
Fonte: amateriadotempo 
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